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Here you will find recipes for making various types of wine. This section will continue to grow, so check back often. Choose your recipe below:
A RECIPE FOR MAKING WHITE WINE
a) A "BIG" Nylon Bag and an extra Primary Fermenter
b) 16 to 18 lbs Wine Grapes (white or red doesn't really matter, just don't use the skins)
c) 1 Campden Tablet, Crushed (highly recommended but not required)
d) 1 Packet Champagne or Montrachet Yeast Check over the grapes, get rid of any mouldy or damaged ones, remove any stems, leaves, bugs, etc...
Put the grapes into a nylon straining bag (or 2 smaller one's if you can't get a really big one), crush the grapes into the bottom of the extra primary fermenter. Use very clean hands, or a big sanitized potato masher. Squash the daylights out of the grapes, turning the bag or bags around and around. Add the Campden tablet now. You should have juice up to the one-gallon mark and somewhat over, because of the fruit pulp.
Pour out the grape juice into the second primary fermenter and squeeze or press the remaining pulp as best you can.
Let the juice settle out a bit and check the PA with a hydrometer, of a clear sample and write it down. Your aiming for 10 to 12% PA. If it is less than that, then your grapes weren't as sweet as they should have been. You'll have to add some sugar dissolved in a little water to make it up.
If it's more than that, it's ok, up to 13%. If it is more than that, take some juice out and add water to make it up and thin out the sugar from the grapes.
If you know how to use an acid test kit, then check the acid and adjust that, too, to 70%. If you don't have an acid test kit, then don't worry about it, everything should be alright.
Cover for 12 hours and fit with a bung and an air lock. After 12 hours add the yeast, after fermentation starts, stir daily. When the PA gets down to about 4%, let the juice settle, it might be pinkish, but that's OK, many white wine's are.
Rack the wine off into a secondary glass fermenter/carboy, topping up with a little water or fresh juice if necessary. After another four weeks, check the PA and rack off into a clean secondary fermenter, bung and fit it with an air lock.
Now let your wine sit for a few months, racking maybe once. Wait until it clears and ferments out dry. Bottle and label your wine and let it rest for 6 months, then open and enjoy.
NOTE: Discard the pulp, or save it in the fridge and use it in the next couple of hour to help ferment and flavour a grape concentrate wine, or grape wine made with fewer grapes and added sugar. This is a pleasant trick. It's called making a "second" wine. You can just use sugar and water and the pulp, fermenting out on the pulp. There's still sugar in there. Use your hydrometer to help you figure it out.
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A RECIPE FOR MAKING RED WINE
a) 25 lbs. Grapes
b) Up to 3 gallons of water
c) 10 to 13 lbs. sugar
d) 5 Campden tablets
e) 5 tsp. Yeast Nutrient
f) 2-1/2 tsp. dry or 25 drops liquid Pectic Enzyme
g) 1 pkg. Wine Yeast
h) Potassium Sorbate (used when bottling if adding more sugar)
i) Starting SG (Specific Gravity) - 1.113 - 1.123
j) Starting PA (Potential Alcohol) - 15 to 16
k) Acid Reading - .65 to .75 - See special note below in step 4.
STEP 1: Sanitizing
Mix 1/4 cup Sodium Bisulfite or five crushed Campden tablet in a one gallon jug of water. This will be your sanitising solution. Sanitise all equipment and utensils by coating surfaces with sanitiser solution and waiting 10 minutes. Rinse sanitising solution from all equipment and utensils with clean cool tap water. (Remainder of sanitiser solution can be kept in a sealed container for future use.)
STEP 2: Must Preparation
Crush fruit in primary fermenter using a crusher or wooden paddle (remove stems after crushing). Dissolve 10 lbs. sugar in 2 gallons of warm water and add to primary fermenter. Add cool water (unheated) to the 5 1/2 gallon mark on the primary fermenter. Leave yourself some "headroom" in your primary, as when the wine starts to ferment it will grow in volume and foam.
STEP 3: Hydrometer Testing and Adjustment
Remove enough must (unfermented juice) to fill the hydrometer test jar. Float the hydrometer in the jar. Spin or tap the hydrometer to dislodge air bubbles and let the hydrometer come to rest. (It should float freely, not touching the sides or bottom.) At eye level, read the figure on the SG scale of the hydrometer where the liquid surface cuts across the stem. If it is less than 1.113 - 1.123, add 1lb sugar at a time. Dissolve the required amount of sugar in must or water and add it to the primary fermenter. Continue taking hydrometer readings and adjusting sugar and liquid amounts until you have 6 1/2 gallons of must with a SG reading of 1.113 - 1.123 or PA reading of 15 - 16.
NOTE: The final alcohol content may be determined by using the Potential Alcohol scale readings corresponding to the original and terminal Balling readings. Subtract the terminal P.A. reading (Step 9) from the original P.A. reading (Step 3) to get an estimate of alcohol by volume. You may also use this reading to adjust sugar required. It isn't as accurate as SG reading but it is easier to read on most hydrometers.
STEP 4: Additives
To the crushed grapes (must), add yeast nutrient, pectic enzyme and crushed Campden tablets, as specified in ingredient list for every 25 lbs of grapes, or adjust for your amount of must.
NOTE: Adjust acid only if you have an acid test kit. It is almost impossible to adjust acid, either up or down, without one. You would probably be better off not to add any acid blend if you do not have an acid test kit.
Cover the primary fermenter with a towel, loose-fitting lid, or plastic sheet and wait 24 hours.
STEP 5: Yeast Preparation and Adding
After the 24 hour waiting period add entire contents of yeast packet to about 2-3 oz of 104F - 109F water, do not stir. Set aside for no more then 15 minutes or until yeast "puffs up," or water becomes cloudy. Stir gently to suspend yeast and add to primary fermenter, stir in well and cover.
STEP 6: Primary Fermentation
Fermentation should start within two days, evidenced by CO2 bubbles and/or a "cap" of pulp pushed to the top of the fermenter by the fermentation. Maintain temperatures of 65o to 75o F, keeping the fermenter off the cold floor. Stir twice daily for 6 - 7 days or until the hydrometer reading reaches SG 1.030 or PA 4.
STEP 7: Preparation for Secondary Fermentation
Scoop the pulp floating at the top of the fermenter into the nylon bag using a sanitised strainer or plastic colander. Squeeze the bag by hand to release juice. Repeat until all pulp is removed. Syphon or pour through a funnel into a carboy (secondary fermenter) and attach airlock (filled with required amount of water). Make sure airlock adapter and carboy neck are dry before applying airlock. (Save any extra wine in a gallon jug fitted with an airlock or covered with plastic wrap fastened with rubber band. This wine may be used in Step 8.) Secondary fermentation temperature should be between 55o and 70o F.
STEP 8: Secondary Fermentation
In 3-4 weeks, rack (syphon) the wine into a clean secondary fermenter, leaving the sediment behind. Racking is done by placing the full container on a table and the empty container on the floor. (A) Place the sanitised racking tube (with syphon hose attached) into the full container. Apply suction to the hose while holding it horizontally. Completely fill the hose with wine (no bubbles, if possible). Close the hose clamp at the end closest to the suction. (B) Lower the end into the empty container, and open the clamp. Rack again in 4-6 weeks and once more in 4-6 weeks time. (If you have only one carboy you must first rack the wine into the sanitised primary fermenter, clean and sanitise the carboy, then re-rack the wine back into the carboy).
STEP 9: Fining
Fining is a procedure to clear the "solid particles" that may be suspended in your wine. There are different fining products available at your local brewing and wine supply house. Follow the directions for whichever one you use, but be sure to wait at least 7 days after fining to bottle. You can use "Sparkolloid", at a rate of 1 teaspoon per gallon of wine. Mix with water, about 1/2 cup of water per teaspoon and boil for 3 minutes. Stir into wine while mixture is still hot. Allow two more weeks to clear, then bottle. Fining your wine does remove some flavour but is probably worth doing for most homemade wines. If you get a little settlings in your wine during aging, you can always rack again or transfer to a different bottle before giving as a gift or serving.
STEP 10: Preparation for Bottling
Keep wine as cool as possible before bottling (40o - 50oF is ideal). When the wine appears clear and stable (hydrometer reading should be at or below 0), the wine is ready for bottling. If you wish to sweeten the wine at bottling time, add Potassium Sorbate as needed or 1 crushed Campden tablet per gallon of wine to prevent renewed fermentation in the bottle, and use a syrup made of 2 cups sugar per 1 cup water. Bring to a boil and continue boiling just till the mixture miraculously clears. Cool completely and sweeten the wine to your taste and wait another 7 days before bottling.
Bottle the wine and age for 12 months. The longer the better, if you can wait.
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